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Background and purpose Bradykinin [BK-(1-9)] is an endogenous peptide involved in many physiological and pathological processes, such as cardiovascular homeostasis and inflammation. The central dogma of the kallikrein-kinin system is that BK-(1-9) fragments are biologically inactive. In this manuscript, we proposed to test whether these fragments were indeed inactive. Experimental Approach Nitric oxide (NO) was quantified in human, mouse and rat cells loaded with DAF-FM after stimulation with BK-(1-9), BK-(1-7), BK-(1-5) and BK-(1-3). We used adult male rat aortic ring preparation to test vascular reactivity mediated by BK-(1-9) fragments. Changes in blood pressure and heart rate was measured in conscious adult male rats by intraarterial catheter method. Key results BK-(1-9) induced NO production in all cell types tested by B2 receptor activation. BK-(1-7), BK-(1-5) and BK-(1-3) also induced NO production in all tested cell types but this response was independent of the activation of B1 receptor and/or B2 receptor. BK-(1-7), BK-(1-5) or BK-(1-3) induced only vasorelaxant effect and in a concentration-dependent fashion. Vasorelaxant effects for BK-(1-7), BK-(1-5) or BK-(1-3) were independent of the kinin receptors. Different administration routes ( i.e ., intravenous or intra-arterial) did not affect the observed hypotension induced by BK-(1-7), BK-(1-5) or BK-(1-3). Importantly, these observations diverged from the BK-(1-9) results, highlighting that indeed the BK-(1-9) fragments do not seem to act via the classical kinin receptors. Conclusions and implications In conclusion, BK-(1-7), BK-(1-5) and BK-(1-3) are biologically active components of the kallikrein-kinin system. Importantly, observed pathophysiological outcomes of these peptides are independent of B1R and/or B2R activation. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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