Pathogen recognition and triggering pattern of host innate immune system is critical to understanding pathogen-host interaction. It is generally accepted that the microbial infection can be recognized by host via pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Recently, non-PRR-mediated cellular surveillance systems have been reported as an important supplement strategy to PTI and ETI responses. However, the mechanism of how surveillance systems sense pathogens and trigger innate immune responses is largely unknown. In the present study, using Bacillus thuringiensis - Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we found a new approach for surveillance systems to sense the pathogens through no-PPRs patterns. We reported C. elegans can monitor intracellular energy status through the mitochondrial surveillance system to triggered innate immune responses against pathogenic attack via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Consider that the mitochondria surveillance systems and AMPK are conserved components from worms to mammals, our study suggests that disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis to activate the immune system through AMPK-dependent pathways may widely existing in animals.
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