Heritability enrichment of specifically expressed genes identifies disease-relevant tissues and cell types
Hilary K Finucane,
Yakir A. Reshef,
Evan Z Macosko,
The Brainstorm Consortium,
John R.B. Perry,
Bradley E. Bernstein,
Benjamin M Neale,
Alkes L. Price
Posted 25 Jan 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/103069 (published DOI: 10.1038/s41588-018-0081-4)
Posted 25 Jan 2017
Genetics can provide a systematic approach to discovering the tissues and cell types relevant for a complex disease or trait. Identifying these tissues and cell types is critical for following up on non-coding allelic function, developing ex-vivo models, and identifying therapeutic targets. Here, we analyze gene expression data from several sources, including the GTEx and PsychENCODE consortia, together with genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics for 48 diseases and traits with an average sample size of 169,331, to identify disease-relevant tissues and cell types. We develop and apply an approach that uses stratified LD score regression to test whether disease heritability is enriched in regions surrounding genes with the highest specific expression in a given tissue. We detect tissue-specific enrichments at FDR < 5% for 34 diseases and traits across a broad range of tissues that recapitulate known biology. In our analysis of traits with observed central nervous system enrichment, we detect an enrichment of neurons over other brain cell types for several brain-related traits, enrichment of inhibitory over excitatory neurons for bipolar disorder but excitatory over inhibitory neurons for schizophrenia and body mass index, and enrichments in the cortex for schizophrenia and in the striatum for migraine. In our analysis of traits with observed immunological enrichment, we identify enrichments of T cells for asthma and eczema, B cells for primary biliary cirrhosis, and myeloid cells for Alzheimer's disease, which we validated with independent chromatin data. Our results demonstrate that our polygenic approach is a powerful way to leverage gene expression data for interpreting GWAS signal.
- Downloaded 4,330 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 2,423
- In genetics: 91
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 61,051
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 83,880
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!