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Background: Malignant astrocytic gliomas in children show a remarkable biological and clinical diversity. Small in-frame insertions or missense mutations in the EGFR gene have recently been identified in a distinct subset of pediatric bithalamic gliomas with a unique DNA methylation pattern. Methods: Here, we investigated an epigenetically homogeneous cohort of malignant gliomas (n=58) distinct from other subtypes and enriched for pediatric cases and thalamic location, in order to elucidate the overlap with this recently identified subtype of pediatric bithalamic gliomas. Results: EGFR gene amplification was detected in 16/58 (27%) tumors, and missense mutations or small in-frame insertions in EGFR were found in 20/30 tumors with available sequencing data (67%; five of them co-occurring with EGFR amplification). Additionally, eight of the 30 tumors (27%) harbored an H3.1 or H3.3 K27M mutation (six of them with a concomitant EGFR alteration). All tumors tested showed loss of H3K27me3 staining, with evidence of EZHIP overexpression in the H3 wildtype cases. Although some tumors indeed showed a bithalamic growth pattern, a significant proportion of tumors occurred in the unilateral thalamus or in other (predominantly midline) locations. Conclusions: Our findings present a distinct molecular class of pediatric malignant gliomas largely overlapping with the recently reported bithalamic gliomas characterized by EGFR alteration, but additionally showing a broader spectrum of EGFR alterations and tumor localization. Global H3K27me3 loss in this group appears to be mediated by either H3 K27 mutation or EZHIP overexpression. EGFR inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in these highly aggressive gliomas. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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