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Effective clinical intervention strategies for COVID-19 are urgently needed. Although several clinical trials have evaluated the use of convalescent plasma containing virus-neutralizing antibodies, the effectiveness has not been proven. We show that hamsters treated with a high dose of human convalescent plasma or a monoclonal antibody were protected against weight loss showing reduced pneumonia and pulmonary virus replication compared to control animals. However, a ten-fold lower dose of convalescent plasma showed no protective effect. Thus, variable and relatively low levels of virus neutralizing antibodies in convalescent plasma may limit their use for effective antiviral therapy, favouring concentrated, purified (monoclonal) antibodies. ### Competing Interest Statement A patent application has been filed for antibody 47D11 targeting SARS-CoV-2 (United Kingdom patent application no. 2003632.3; patent applicants: Utrecht University, Erasmus Medical Center and Harbour BioMed). Others declare no competing interests.

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