Ex vivo detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells: rapid induction, prolonged contraction, and formation of functional memory
Lea M. Seidel,
Marilyn Salvat Lago,
Cornelius F. Waller,
David A. Price,
Posted 14 Aug 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.08.13.249433
Posted 14 Aug 2020
CD8+ T cells are critical for the elimination and long-lasting protection of many viral infections, but their role in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is unclear. Emerging data indicates that SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are detectable in the majority of individuals recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, optimal virus-specific epitopes, the role of pre-existing heterologous immunity as well as their kinetics and differentiation program during disease control have not been defined in detail. Here, we show that both pre-existing and newly induced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are potentially important determinants of immune protection in mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular, our results can be summarized as follows: First, immunodominant SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes are targeted in the majority of individuals with convalescent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Second, MHC class I tetramer analyses revealed the emergence of phenotypically diverse and functionally competent pre-existing and newly induced SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells that showed similar characteristics compared to influenza-specific CD8+ T cells. Third, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are more robustly detectable than antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2-spike protein. This was confirmed in a longitudinal analysis of acute-resolving infection that demonstrated rapid induction of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells within a week followed by a prolonged contraction phase that outlasted the waning humoral immune response indicating that CD8+ T-cell responses might serve as a more precise correlate of antiviral immunity than antibody measurements after convalescence. Collectively, these data provide new insights into the fine specificity, heterogeneity, and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells, potentially informing the rational development of a protective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
- Downloaded 1,745 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 8,574
- In immunology: 234
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 11,379
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 15,116
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!