Consequences of a short-term exposure to a sub lethal concentration of CdO nanoparticles on key life history traits in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
Nanoparticles of cadmium oxide (CdO NPs) are among the most common industrial metal oxide nanoparticles. Early adulthood (F0) fruit flies (D. melanogaster) were exposed for 7 days to a sub lethal concentration (0.03 mg CdO NPs/ml, which was 20% of the LC50), spiked into food media to test for long term-effects over time and beyond their direct exposure on key life history traits. Effects on survival, developmental time, eclosion rate, fecundity and negative geotaxis performance were assessed. Potential effects on ultrastructure of mid gut cells were also investigated by use of electron microscopy. All studied life history traits, as well as climbing behavior were adversely affected by exposure to CdO NPs. In non-exposed progeny (F1) of adult flies (F0), a blistered wing phenotype was also observed. Lysis of nuclear and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) membranes, mitochondrial swelling and lysis were among the most common cellular alterations observed in midgut cells of F0 flies exposed to CdO NPs. Genes encoding for metallothionein (MTn A-D) were significantly upregulated in both parent flies (F0) and their progeny (F1) after exposure of F0 flies to CdO NPs, compared to unexposed, control flies, a result which indicated potential, long-term effects. Taken together, these results suggest that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of CdO NPs is sufficient to cause long-lasting, harmful effects on fruit flies. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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