Limits to the cellular control of sequestered cryptophyte prey in the marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum
Per Juel Hansen,
Posted 15 Jul 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.07.14.202424
Posted 15 Jul 2020
The marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is famous for its ability to acquire and exploit chloroplasts and other cell organelles from some cryptophyte algal species. We sequenced genomes and transcriptomes of free-swimming Teleaulax amphioxeia , as well as well-fed and starved M. rubrum in order to understand cellular processes upon sequestration under different prey and light conditions. From its prey, the ciliate acquires the ability to photosynthesize as well as the potential to metabolize several essential compounds including lysine, glycan, and vitamins that elucidate its specific prey dependency. M. rubrum does not express photosynthesis related genes itself, but elicits considerable transcriptional control of the acquired cryptophyte organelles. This control is limited as light dependent transcriptional changes found in free-swimming T. amphioxeia got lost after sequestration. We found strong transcriptional rewiring of the cryptophyte nucleus upon sequestration, where 35% of the T. amphioxeia genes were significantly differentially expressed within well-fed M. rubrum . Qualitatively, 68% of all genes expressed within well-fed M. rubrum originated from T. amphioxeia . Quantitatively, these genes contributed up to 48% to the global transcriptome in well-fed M. rubrum and down to 11% in starved M. rubrum . This tertiary endosymbiosis system functions for several weeks, when deprived of prey. After this point in time, the ciliate dies if not supplied with fresh prey cells. M. rubrum represents one evolutionary way of acquiring photosystems from its algal prey, and might represent a step on the evolutionary way towards a permanent tertiary endosymbiosis. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
- Downloaded 271 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 82,346
- In evolutionary biology: 4,589
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 110,286
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 68,003
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!