Clustering of Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Loci by Multi-Trait Associations Identifies Disease Mechanisms and Subtypes
Marcin von Grotthuss,
Josep M. Mercader,
Christopher D. Anderson,
Gad A. Getz,
Jose C. Florez
Posted 10 May 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/319509
Posted 10 May 2018
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease for which 1) disease-causing pathways are incompletely understood and 2) sub-classification may improve patient management. Unlike other biomarkers, germline genetic markers do not change with disease progression or treatment. In this paper we test whether a germline genetic approach informed by physiology can be used to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. First, we aimed to categorize genetic loci into groups representing likely disease mechanistic pathways. Second, we asked whether the novel clusters of genetic loci we identified have any broad clinical consequence, as assessed in four independent cohorts of individuals with T2D. In an effort to identify mechanistic pathways driven by established T2D genetic loci, we applied Bayesian nonnegative matrix factorization clustering to genome-wide association results for 94 independent T2D genetic loci and 47 diabetes-related traits. We identified five robust clusters of T2D loci and traits, each with distinct tissue-specific enhancer enrichment based on analysis of epigenomic data from 28 cell types. Two clusters contained variant-trait associations indicative of reduced beta-cell function, differing from each other by high vs. low proinsulin levels. The three other clusters displayed features of insulin resistance: obesity-mediated (high BMI, waist circumference), "lipodystrophy-like" fat distribution (low BMI, adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol, and high triglycerides), and disrupted liver lipid metabolism (low triglycerides). Increased cluster GRS's were associated with distinct clinical outcomes, including increased blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and stroke risk. We evaluated the potential for clinical impact of these clusters in four studies containing participants with T2D (METSIM, N=487; Ashkenazi, N=509; Partners Biobank, N=2,065; UK Biobank N=14,813). Individuals with T2D in the top genetic risk score decile for each cluster reproducibly exhibited the predicted cluster-associated phenotypes, with ~30% of all participants assigned to just one cluster top decile. Our approach identifies salient T2D genetically anchored and physiologically informed pathways, and supports use of genetics to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. Classification of patients by these genetic pathways may offer a step toward genetically informed T2D patient management.
- Downloaded 1,944 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 6,294 out of 118,417
- In genetics: 329 out of 5,139
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 33,248 out of 118,417
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 34,613 out of 118,417
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!