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High-frequency oscillations in the internal globus pallidus: a pathophysiological biomarker in Parkinson's disease?

By Luke A Johnson, Joshua E Aman, Ying Yu, David Escobar Sanabria, Jing Wang, Meghan Hill, Rajiv Dharnipragada, Remi Patriat, Mark Fiecas, Laura Li, Lauren E Schrock, Scott E Cooper, Matthew D Johnson, Michael C Park, Noam Harel, Jerrold L Vitek

Posted 16 Jun 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.06.16.144477

Abnormal oscillatory neural activity in the basal ganglia is thought to play a pathophysiological role in Parkinson's disease. Many patient studies have focused on beta frequency band (13-35 Hz) local field potential activity in the subthalamic nucleus, however increasing evidence points to alterations in neural oscillations in high frequency ranges (>100 Hz) having pathophysiological relevance. Prior studies have found that power in subthalamic high frequency oscillations (HFOs) is positively correlated with dopamine tone and increased during voluntary movements, implicating these brain rhythms in normal basal ganglia function. Contrary to this idea, in the current study we present a combination of clinical and preclinical data that support the hypothesis that HFOs in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) are a pathophysiological feature of Parkinson's disease. Spontaneous and movement-related pallidal field potentials were recorded from deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads targeting the GPi in five externalized Parkinson's disease patients, on and off dopaminergic medication. We identified a prominent oscillatory peak centered at 200-300 Hz in the off-medication rest recordings in all patients. High frequency power increased during movement, and the magnitude of modulation was negatively correlated with bradykinesia. Moreover, high frequency oscillations were significantly attenuated in the on-medication condition, suggesting they are a feature of the parkinsonian condition. To further confirm that GPi high frequency oscillations are characteristic of dopamine depletion, we also collected field potentials from DBS leads chronically implanted in three rhesus monkeys before and after the induction of parkinsonism with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). High frequency oscillations and their modulation during movement were not prominent in the normal condition but emerged in the parkinsonian condition in the monkey model. These data provide the first evidence demonstrating that exaggerated, movement-modulated high frequency oscillations in the internal globus pallidus are a pathophysiological feature of Parkinson's disease, and motivate additional investigations into the functional roles of high frequency neural oscillations across the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit and their relationship to motor control in normal and diseased states. These findings also provide rationale for further exploration of these signals for electrophysiological biomarker-based device programming and stimulation strategies in patients receiving deep brain stimulation therapy. ### Competing Interest Statement Noam Harel - consultant and a shareholder for Surgical Information Sciences Inc. Remi Patriat - consultant for Surgical Information Sciences Inc. Michael Park - Listed faculty for University of Minnesota Educational Partnership with Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, Consultant for: Zimmer Biomet, Synerfues, Inc, NeuroOne, Boston Scientific. Grant/Research support from: Medtronic, Inc., Boston Scientific, Abbott. Jerrold Vitek - Consultant for: Medtronic, Inc., Boston Scientific, Abbott, Surgical Information Sciences, Inc.

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