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The COVID-19 pandemic is a major threat to global health for which there are only limited medical countermeasures, and we lack a thorough understanding of mechanisms of humoral immunity. From a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the spike (S) glycoprotein isolated from the B cells of infected subjects, we identified several mAbs that exhibited potent neutralizing activity with IC50 values as low as 0.9 or 15 ng/mL in pseudovirus or wild-type (wt) SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, respectively. The most potent mAbs fully block the receptor-binding domain of S (SRBD) from interacting with human ACE2. Competition-binding, structural, and functional studies allowed clustering of the mAbs into defined classes recognizing distinct epitopes within major antigenic sites on the SRBD. Electron microscopy studies revealed that these mAbs recognize distinct conformational states of trimeric S protein. Potent neutralizing mAbs recognizing unique sites, COV2-2196 and COV2-2130, bound simultaneously to S and synergistically neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. In two murine models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, passive transfer of either COV2-2916 or COV2-2130 alone or a combination of both mAbs protected mice from severe weight loss and reduced viral burden and inflammation in the lung. These results identify protective epitopes on the SRBD and provide a structure-based framework for rational vaccine design and the selection of robust immunotherapeutic cocktails. ### Competing Interest Statement R.S.B. has served as a consultant for Takeda and Sanofi Pasteur on issues related to vaccines. M.S.D. is a consultant for Inbios, Vir Biotechnology, NGM Biopharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, and is on the Scientific Advisory Board of Moderna, a past recipient of unrelated research grant from Moderna and a current recipient of an unrelated research grant Emergent BioSolutions. J.E.C. has served as a consultant for Sanofi and is on the Scientific Advisory Boards of CompuVax and Meissa Vaccines, is a recipient of previous unrelated research grants from Moderna and Sanofi and is Founder of IDBiologics, Inc. Vanderbilt University has applied for patents concerning SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that are related to this work. AstraZeneca has filed patents for materials/findings related to this work. J.J.S., K.R., Y.-M.L., and N.L.K. are employees of AstraZeneca and currently hold AstraZeneca stock or stock options. All other authors declared no competing interests.

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