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Phylogenomics of Brosimum Sw. (Moraceae) and allied genera, including a revised subgeneric system

By Elliot M. Gardner, Lauren Audi, Qian Zhang, Hervé Sauquet, Alexandre Monro, Nyree J.C. Zerega

Posted 16 May 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.15.098566

We present a phylogenomic study of Brosimum and the allied genera Trymatococcus and Helianthostylis, with near-complete taxon sampling. Distributed from Mexico and the Greater Antilles to the Amazon, this clade contains the underutilized crop ramón (bread nut) (Brosimum alicastrum) as well as other species valued for timber or medicinal uses. Target enrichment for 333 genes produced a well-resolved phylogenetic tree and showed that Trymatoccocus and Helianthostylis are nested within Brosimum. We present a revised subgeneric classification of Brosimum based on phylogenetic and morphological considerations, including the reduction of Trymatococcus and Helianthostylis to subgenera. The monophyletic subgenera can be diagnosed based on stipule, pistillode, and cotyledon synapomorphies. Divergence date estimates suggest a Miocene origin for Brosimum, and ancestral area reconstruction indicated that all four subgenera originated and initially diversified in Amazonia before dispersing into other parts of South and Central America. Resumen Presentamos un estudio filogenómico del género Brosimum y sus aliados, Trymatococcus y Helianthostylis, y que incluye prácticamente todas las especies descritas. Su distribución va desde México y las Antillas Mayores hasta el Amazonas y comprende especies como el ramón (B. alicastrum), un cultivo infrautilizado, y otras especies empleadas como madera o en medicina. La secuenciación masiva dirigida de 333 marcadores nucleares de copia única permitió la reconstrucción de una filogenia bien resuelta, en la que se demuestra que Trymatococcus y Helianthostylis están anidados en Brosimum. Presentamos, por lo tanto, una clasificación revisada a nivel de especies, teniendo en cuenta los resultados moleculares y las características morfológicas, y donde Trymatococcus y Helianthostylis pasan a ser subgéneros de Brosimum. Estos subgéneros monofiléticos pueden ser identificados por caracteres de las estípulas y de los pistilodios. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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