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Non-human primates (NHP) provide a unique opportunity to study human neurological diseases, yet detailed characterization of the cell types and transcriptional regulatory features in the NHP brain is lacking. We applied a combinatorial indexing assay, sci-ATAC-seq, as well as single-nuclei RNA-seq, to profile chromatin accessibility in 43,793 single cells and transcriptomics in 11,477 cells, respectively, from prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex and the primary visual cortex of adult cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascularis. Integrative analysis of these two datasets, resolved regulatory elements and transcription factors that specify cell type distinctions, and discovered area-specific diversity in chromatin accessibility and gene expression within excitatory neurons. We also constructed the dynamic landscape of chromatin accessibility and gene expression of oligodendrocyte maturation to characterize adult remyelination. Furthermore, we identified cell type-specific enrichment of differentially spliced gene isoforms and disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our datasets permit integrative exploration of complex regulatory dynamics in macaque brain tissue at single-cell resolution. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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