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Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping provides a powerful means to identify functional variants influencing gene expression and disease pathogenesis. We report the identification of cis-eQTLs from 7,051 post-mortem samples representing 44 tissues and 449 individuals as part of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We find a cis-eQTL for 88% of all annotated protein-coding genes, with one-third having multiple independent effects. We identify numerous tissue-specific cis-eQTLs, highlighting the unique functional impact of regulatory variation in diverse tissues. By integrating large-scale functional genomics data and state-of-the-art fine-mapping algorithms, we identify multiple features predictive of tissue-specific and shared regulatory effects. We improve estimates of cis-eQTL sharing and effect sizes using allele specific expression across tissues. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this large compendium of cis-eQTLs for understanding the tissue-specific etiology of complex traits, including coronary artery disease. The GTEx project provides an exceptional resource that has improved our understanding of gene regulation across tiss

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