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Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Knowledge is evolving on genetics underlying initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence (ND), and cessation. We performed a genome-wide association study using the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND) in 58,000 smokers of European or African ancestry. Five genome-wide significant loci, including two novel loci MAGI2/GNAI1 (rs2714700) and TENM2 (rs1862416) were identified, and loci reported for other smoking traits were extended to ND. Using the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) in the UK Biobank (N=33,791), rs2714700 was consistently associated, but rs1862416 was not associated, likely reflecting ND features not captured by the HSI. Both variants were cis-eQTLs (rs2714700 for MAGI2-AS3 in hippocampus, rs1862416 for TENM2 in lung), and expression of genes spanning ND-associated variants was enriched in cerebellum. SNP-based heritability of ND was 8.6%, and ND was genetically correlated with 17 other smoking traits (rg=0.40-0.95) and co-morbidities. Our results emphasize the FTND as a composite phenotype that expands genetic knowledge of smoking, including loci specific to ND. ### Competing Interest Statement L.J.B. and the spouse of N.L.S. are listed as inventors on U.S. Patent 8,080,371, 'Markers for Addiction' covering the use of certain SNPs in determining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of addiction. Y.G. is an employee of GeneCentric Therapeutics. Although unrelated to this research, H.R.K. is an advisory board member for Dicerna and a member of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology's Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative, which was supported in the last 3 years by AbbVie, Alkermes, Ethypharm, Indivior, Lilly, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer, Arbor and Amygdala Neurosciences. H.R.K. and J.G. are named as inventors on PCT patent application #15/878,640 entitled: "Genotype-guided dosing of opioid agonists," filed January 24, 2018. J.K. consulted for Pfizer in 2012-2015 on ND. All other authors declare no conflict of interest.

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