Paradoxical role of AT-rich interactive domain 1A in restraining pancreatic carcinogenesis
Pankaj K Singh,
Cortt G Piett,
Posted 08 Nov 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/835793 (published DOI: 10.3390/cancers12092695)
Posted 08 Nov 2019
Background & Aims: ARID1A is postulated to be a tumor suppressor gene owing to loss-of-function mutations in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). However, its role in pancreatic pathogenesis is not clear despite recent studies using genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models. We aimed at further understanding of its direct functional role in PDAC, using a combination of GEM model, PDAC cell lines. Methods: Pancreas-specific mutant Arid1a-driven GEM model (Ptf1a-Cre;KrasG12D;Arid1af/f or "KAC") was generated by crossing Ptf1a-Cre;KrasG12D ("KC") mice with Arid1af/f mice and characterized histologically with timed necropsies. Arid1a was also deleted using CRISPR-Cas9 system in established PDAC cell lines to study the immediate effects of Arid1a loss in isogenic models. Cells lines with or without Arid1a expression were developed from respective autochthonous PDAC GEM models, compared functionally using various culture assays, and subjected to RNA-sequencing for comparative gene expression analysis. DNA damage repair was analyzed in cultured cells using immunofluorescence and COMET assay. Results: Arid1a is critical for early progression of mutant Kras-driven pre-malignant lesions into PDAC, as evident by lower Ki-67 and higher apoptosis staining in "KAC" as compared to "KC" mice. Enforced deletion of Arid1a in established PDAC cell lines caused suppression of cellular growth and migration, accompanied by compromised DNA damage repair. Despite early development of relatively indolent cystic precursor lesions called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), a subset of "KAC" mice developed aggressive PDAC in later ages. PDAC cells obtained from older autochthonous "KAC" mice revealed epigenetic changes underlying the various compensatory mechanisms to overcome the growth suppressive effects of Arid1a loss. Conclusions: Arid1a is an essential survival gene whose loss impairs cellular growth, and thus, its expression is critical during early stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis in mouse models.
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