During navigation, the visual responses of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are modulated by the animal's spatial position. Here we show that this spatial modulation is similarly present across multiple higher visual areas but largely absent in the main thalamic pathway into V1. Similar to hippocampus, spatial modulation in visual cortex strengthens with experience and requires engagement in active behavior. Active navigation in a familiar environment, therefore, determines spatial modulation of visual signals starting in the cortex. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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