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Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are prevalent throughout the evolutionary history of plants. For example, dozens of WGDs have been phylogenetically localized across the order Brassicales, specifically, within the family Brassicaceae. However, while its sister family, Cleomaceae, has also been characterized by a WGD, its placement, as well as that of other WGD events in other families in the order, remains unclear. Using phylo-transcriptomics from 74 taxa and genome survey sequencing for 66 of those taxa, we infer nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies to assess relationships among the major families of the Brassicales and within the Brassicaceae. We then use multiple methods of WGD inference to assess placement of WGD events. We not only present well-supported chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies for the Brassicales, but we also putatively place Th-ɑ and provide evidence for previously unknown events, including one shared by at least two members of the Resedaceae, which we name Rs-ɑ. Given its economic importance and many genomic resources, the Brassicales are an ideal group to continue assessing WGD inference methods. We add to the current conversation on WGD inference difficulties, by demonstrating that sampling is especially important for WGD identification.

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