The human cerebral hemispheres show a left-right asymmetrical torque pattern, which has been claimed to be absent in chimpanzees. The functional significance and developmental mechanisms are unknown. Here we carried out the largest-ever analysis of global brain shape asymmetry in magnetic resonance imaging data. Three population datasets were used, the UK Biobank ( N = 39,678), Human Connectome Project ( N = 1,113) and BIL&GIN ( N = 453). At the population level, there was an anterior and dorsal skew of the right hemisphere, relative to the left. Both skews were associated independently with handedness, and various regional grey and white matter metrics oppositely in the two hemispheres, as well as other variables related to cognitive functions, sociodemographic factors, and physical and mental health. The two skews showed SNP-based heritabilities of 4-13%, but also substantial polygenicity in causal mixture model analysis, and no individually significant loci were found in GWAS for either skew. There was evidence for a significant genetic correlation ( r g =−0.40, p =0.0075) between horizontal brain skew and Autism Spectrum Disorder. These results provide the first large-scale description of population-average brain skews and their inter-individual variations, their replicable associations with handedness, and insights into biological and other factors which associate with human brain asymmetry. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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