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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) infection can be controlled with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but neurocognitive impairment remains common even in treated and chronic HIV-infected (HIV+) cohorts. Identifying the neuroanatomical pathways associated with infection has the potential to delineate novel neuropathological processes underlying persisting deficits, yet individual neuroimaging studies have yielded inconsistent findings. The ENIGMA-HIV Working Group was established to harmonize data from diverse studies to identify the common effects of HIV-infection on brain structure. Methods: Data were pooled from 12 independent neuroHIV studies from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Volume estimates for eight subcortical brain regions were extracted from T1-weighted MRI from 1,044 HIV+ adults (aged 22-81 years; 72.4% on cART; 70.3% male; 41.6% with detectable viral load (dVL)), to identify associations with plasma markers reflecting current immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count) or dVL. Follow-up analyses stratified data by cART status and sex. Bonferroni correction was used to determine statistical significance. Findings: Lower current CD4+ count was associated with smaller hippocampal ( β = 20.3 mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; p = 0.0001) and thalamic volumes ( β = 29.3; p = 0.003); in the subset of participants not on cART, it was associated with smaller putamen volumes ( β = 65.1; p = 0.0009). On average, a dVL was associated with smaller hippocampal (Cohen's d = 0.24; p = 0.0003) and amygdala volumes ( d = 0.18; p = 0.0058). Interpretation: In HIV+ individuals across five continents, smaller limbic volumes were consistently associated with current plasma markers. As we assessed cohorts with different inclusion/exclusion criteria and demographic distributions, these deficits may represent a generalizable brain-signature of HIV infection in the cART era. Our findings support the importance of achieving viral suppression and immune restoration for maintaining brain health. Funding: This work was supported, in part, by NIH grant U54 EB020403.

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