Intellectual Disability-related genes increase ADHD risk and locomotor activity in Drosophila
Anne van Rens,
Nina Roth Mota,
Lambertus A Kiemeney,
Han G Brunner,
Monique van der Voet,
Posted 05 Aug 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/725937
Posted 05 Aug 2019
Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD often co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID), and shared overlapping genetics have been suggested. This study aimed to identify novel ADHD genes by investigating whether genes carrying rare mutations linked to ID contribute to ADHD risk through common genetic variants. Validation and characterization of candidates were performed using Drosophila melanogaster. Method: Common genetic variants in a diagnostic gene panel of 396 autosomal ID genes were tested for association with ADHD risk, through gene-set and gene-wide analyses, using ADHD meta-analytic data of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n=19,210) for discovery and iPSYCH ADHD data for replication (n=37,076). The significant genes were functionally validated and characterized in Drosophila by assessing locomotor activity and sleep upon knockdown of those genes in brain circuits. Results: The ID gene-set was significantly associated with ADHD risk in the discovery and replication data-sets. The three genes most consistently associated were MEF2C, ST3GAL3, and TRAPPC9. Performing functional characterization of the two evolutionary conserved genes in Drosophila melanogaster, we found their knockdown in dopaminergic (dMEF2) and circadian neurons (dTRAPPC9) to result in increased locomotor activity and reduced sleep, concordant with the human phenotype. Conclusions: This study reveals that a large set of ID-related genes contributes to ADHD risk through effects of common alleles. Utilizing this continuity, we identified TRAPPC9, MEF2C, and ST3GAL3 as novel ADHD candidate genes. Characterization in Drosophila suggests that TRAPPC9 and MEF2C contribute to ADHD-related behavior through distinct neural substrates.
- Downloaded 279 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 90,478
- In genetics: 4,065
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 77,333
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 64,456
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!