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Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm, driven by the SS18-SSX fusion, and characterized by immunogenic antigens expression and exceptionally low T cell infiltration levels. To study the cancer-immune interplay in this disease, we profiled 16,872 cells from 12 human synovial sarcoma tumors using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-Seq). Synovial sarcoma manifests antitumor immunity, high cellular plasticity and a core oncogenic program, which is predictive of low immune levels and poor clinical outcomes. Using genetic and pharmacological perturbations, we demonstrate that the program is controlled by the SS18-SSX driver and repressed by cytokines secreted by macrophages and T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Network modeling predicted that SS18-SSX promotes the program through HDAC1 and CDK6. Indeed, the combination of HDAC and CDK4/6 inhibitors represses the program, induces immunogenic cell states, and selectively targets synovial sarcoma cells. Our study demonstrates that immune evasion, cellular plasticity, and cell cycle are co-regulated and can be co-targeted in synovial sarcoma and potentially in other malignancies.

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