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All thresholds of maternal hyperglycaemia from the WHO 2013 criteria for gestational diabetes identify women with a higher genetic risk for type 2 diabetes

By Alice E Hughes, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Aoife M Egan, Kashyap A. Patel, Denise M. Scholtens, Lynn P Lowe, William L Lowe, Fidelma P Dunne, Andrew T Hattersley, Rachel M Freathy

Posted 13 Jun 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/671057 (published DOI: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16097.1)

Background: Using genetic scores for fasting plasma glucose (FPG GS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D GS), we investigated whether the fasting, 1-hour and 2-hour glucose thresholds from the WHO 2013 criteria for gestational diabetes (GDM) have different implications for genetic susceptibility to raised fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in women from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy (DIP) studies. Methods: Cases were divided into three subgroups: (i) FPG ≥5.1 mmol/L only, n=222; (ii) 1-hour glucose post 75 g oral glucose load ≥10 mmol/L only, n=154 (iii) 2-hour glucose ≥8.5 mmol/L only, n=73); and (iv) both FPG ≥5.1 mmol/L and either of a 1-hour glucose ≥10 mmol/L or 2-hour glucose ≥8.5 mmol/L, n=172. We compared the FPG and T2D GS of these groups with controls (n=3,091) in HAPO and DIP separately. Results: In HAPO and DIP, the mean FPG GS in women with a FPG ≥5.1 mmol/L, either on its own or with 1-hour glucose ≥10 mmol/L or 2-hour glucose ≥8.5 mmol/L, was higher than controls (all P <0.01). Mean T2D GS in women with a raised FPG alone or with either a raised 1-hour or 2-hour glucose was higher than controls (all P <0.05). GDM defined by 1-hour or 2-hour hyperglycaemia only was also associated with a higher T2D GS than controls (all P <0.05). Conclusions: The different diagnostic categories that are part of the WHO 2013 criteria for GDM identify women with a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes as well as a risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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