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Machine Learning Prediction of Incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease Using Large-Scale Administrative Health Data

By Ji Hwan Park, Han Eol Cho, Jong Hun Kim, Melanie Wall, Yaakov Stern, Hyunsun Lim, Shinjae Yoo, Hyoung Seop Kim, Jiook Cha

Posted 02 May 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/625582 (published DOI: 10.1038/s41746-020-0256-0)

Nationwide population-based cohort provides a new opportunity to build a completely automated risk prediction model based on individuals’ history of health and healthcare beyond existing risk prediction models. We tested the possibility of machine learning models to predict future incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using large-scale administrative health data. From the Korean National Health Insurance Service database between 2002 and 2010, we obtained de-identified health data in elders above 65 years (N=40,736) containing 4,894 unique clinical features including ICD-10 codes, medication codes, laboratory values, history of personal and family illness, and socio-demographics. To define incident AD two operational definitions were considered: “definite AD” with diagnostic codes and dementia medication (n=614) and “probable AD” with only diagnosis (n=2,026). We trained and validated a random forest, support vector machine, and logistic regression to predict incident AD in 1,2,3, and 4 subsequent years. For predicting future incidence of AD in balanced samples (bootstrapping), the machine learning models showed reasonable performance in 1-year prediction with AUC of 0.775 and 0.759, based on “definite AD” and “probable AD” outcomes, respectively; in 2-year, 0.730 and 0.693; in 3-year, 0.677 and 0.644; in 4-year, 0.725 and 0.683. The results were similar when the entire (unbalanced) samples were used. Important clinical features selected in logistic regression included hemoglobin level, age, and urine protein level. This study may shed a light on the utility of the data-driven machine learning model based on large-scale administrative health data in AD risk prediction, which may enable better selection of individuals at risk for AD in clinical trials or early detection in clinical settings.

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