Excessive intake of carbohydrates and fats causes over-nutrition, leading to a variety of diseases and complications. Here, we characterized the effects of different types of sugar and lipids on the growth and development of Caenorhabditis elegans. We measured the lifespan, reproductive capacity, and length of nematodes after sugars and lipids treatment alone and co-treatment of sugars and lipids. Furthermore, by using transcriptome sequencing technology, we studied the mechanisms underlying the damaged caused by high-sucrose and high-stearic acid on C. elegans. The results showed that a certain concentration of sugar and lipid promoted the growth and development of nematodes. However, excessive sugars and lipids shortened the lifespan and length of nematodes and destroyed their reproductive capacity. Based on the results of the orthogonal test, we selected 400 mmol/L sucrose and 500 μg/mL stearic acid to model a high-sugar and high-lipid diet for C. elegans. High-sugar and high-lipid intake altered the expression of genes involved in biofilm synthesis, genes that catalyze the synthesis and degradation of endogenous substances, and genes involved in innate immunity, resulting in physiological damage.
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