The Alzheimer’s Disease Metabolome: Effects of Sex and APOE ε4 genotype
M. Arthur Moseley,
J. Will Thompson,
Lisa St. John Williams,
Jessica D. Tenenbaum,
Roberta D. Brinton,
John Q. Trojanowski,
Leslie M. Shaw,
Michael W. Weiner,
Jon B Toledo,
P. Murali Doraiswamy,
Andrew J. Saykin,
for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative,
the Alzheimer’s Disease Metabolomics Consortium
Posted 04 Apr 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/585455 (published DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-14959-w)
Posted 04 Apr 2019
Recent studies have provided evidence that late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can in part be considered a metabolic disease. Besides age, female sex and APOE ε4 genotype represent strong risk factors for AD. They also both give rise to large metabolic differences, suggesting that metabolic aspects of AD pathogenesis may differ between males and females and between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers. We systematically investigated group-specific metabolic alterations by conducting stratified association analyses of 140 metabolites measured in serum samples of 1,517 AD neuroimaging initiative subjects, with AD biomarkers for Aβ and tau pathology and neurodegeneration. We observed substantial sex differences in effects of 15 metabolites on AD biomarkers with partially overlapping differences for APOE ε4 status groups. These metabolites highlighted several group-specific alterations not observed in unstratified analyses using sex and APOE ε4 as covariates. Combined stratification by both variables uncovered further subgroup-specific metabolic effects limited to the group with presumably the highest AD risk: APOE ε4+ females. Pathways linked to the observed metabolic alterations suggest that females experience more expressed impairment of mitochondrial energy production in AD than males. These findings indicate that dissecting metabolic heterogeneity in AD pathogenesis may enable grading of the biomedical relevance of specific pathways for specific subgroups. Extending our approach beyond simple one- or two-fold stratification may thus guide the way to personalized medicine. Significance statement Research provides substantial evidence that late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a metabolic disease. Besides age, female sex and APOEε4 genotype represent strong risk factors for AD, and at the same time give rise to large metabolic differences. Our systematic investigation of sex and APOE ε4 genotype differences in the link between metabolism and measures of pre-symptomatic AD using stratified analysis revealed several group-specific metabolic alterations that were not observed without sex and genotype stratification of the same cohort. Pathways linked to the observed metabolic alterations suggest females are more affected by impairment of mitochondrial energy production in AD than males, highlighting the importance of tailored treatment approaches towards a precision medicine approach.
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