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The tree of life is highly reticulate, with the history of population divergence buried amongst phylogenies deriving from introgression and lineage sorting. In this study, we test the hypothesis that there are regions of the oak (Quercus, Fagaceae) genome that are broadly informative about phylogeny and investigate global patterns of oak diversity. We utilize fossil data and restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) for 632 individuals representing ca. 250 oak species to infer a time-calibrated phylogeny of the world's oaks. We use reversible-jump MCMC to reconstruct shifts in lineage diversification rates, accounting for among-clade sampling biases. We then map the > 20,000 RAD-seq loci back to a recently published oak genome and investigate genomic distribution of introgression and phylogenetic support across the phylogeny. Oak lineages have diversified among geographic regions, followed by ecological divergence within regions, in the Americas and Eurasia. Roughly 60% of oak diversity traces back to four clades that experienced increases in net diversification due to climatic transitions or ecological opportunity. The support we find for the phylogeny contrasts with high genomic heterogeneity in phylogenetic signal and introgression. Oaks are phylogenomic mosaics, and their diversity may in fact depend on the gene flow that shapes the oak genome.

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