Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are influenced by the animal's position in the environment and encode positions that correlate with those encoded by hippocampus (CA1). Might V1's encoding of spatial positions be inherited from hippocampal regions? If so, it should depend on non-visual factors that affect the encoding of position in hippocampus, such as the physical distance traveled and the phase of theta oscillations. We recorded V1 and CA1 neurons while mice ran through a virtual corridor and confirmed these predictions. Spatial representations in V1 and CA1 were correlated even in the absence of visual cues. Moreover, similar to CA1 place cells, the spatial responses of V1 neurons were influenced by the physical distance traveled and the phase of hippocampal theta oscillations. These results reveal a modulation of cortical sensory processing by non-sensory estimates of position that might originate in hippocampal regions.
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