Descriptive epidemiology of energy expenditure in the UK: Findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008 to 2015
Background: Little is known about population levels of energy expenditure as national surveillance systems typically employ only crude measures. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) in the UK measures energy expenditure in a 10% subsample by gold-standard doubly-labelled water (DLW). Methods: DLW-subsample participants from the NDNS (383 males, 387 females) aged 4-91yrs were recruited between 2008 and 2015. Height and weight were measured, and bodyfat percentage was estimated by deuterium dilution. Results: Absolute Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) increases steadily throughout childhood, ranging from 6.3 and 7.2 MJ/day in 4-7yr-old to 9.9 and 11.8 MJ/day for 14-16yr-old girls and boys, respectively. TEE peaked in 17-27yr-old women (10.9 MJ/day) and 28-43yr-old men (14.4 MJ/day), before decreasing gradually in old age. Physical Acitivty Energy Expenditure (PAEE) declines steadily with age from childhood (87.7 kJ/day/kg in 4-7yr olds) through to old age (38.9 kJ/day/kg in 71-91yr olds). Bodyfat percentage was strongly inversely associated with PAEE throughout life, irrespective of expressing PAEE relative to bodymass or fat-free mass. Compared to females with <30% bodyfat, females >40% recorded 28 kJ/day/kg and 17 kJ/day/kg fat-free mass less PAEE in analyses adjusted for age, geographical region, and time of assessment. Similarly, compared to males with <25% bodyfat, males >35% recorded 26 kJ/day/kg and 10 kJ/day/kg fat-free mass less PAEE. Conclusions: This first nationally representative study reports levels of human energy expenditure as measured by gold-standard methodology; values may serve as reference for other population studies. Age, sex and body composition are main biological determinants of energy expenditure.
- Downloaded 402 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 62,338
- In epidemiology: 2,634
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 76,290
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 76,290
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!