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The rapid pace of cell type identification by new single-cell analysis methods has not been met with efficient experimental access to the newly discovered types. To enable flexible and efficient access to specific neural populations in the mouse cortex, we collected chromatin accessibility data from individual cells and clustered the single-cell data to identify enhancers specific for cell classes and subclasses. When cloned into adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) and delivered to the brain by retro-orbital injections, these enhancers drive transgene expression in specific cell subclasses in the cortex. We characterize several enhancer viruses in detail to show that they result in labeling of different projection neuron subclasses in mouse cortex, and that one of them can be used to label the homologous projection neuron subclass in human cortical slices. To enable the combinatorial labeling of more than one cell type by enhancer viruses, we developed a three-color Cre-, Flp- and Nigri- recombinase dependent reporter mouse line, Ai213. The delivery of three enhancer viruses driving these recombinases via a single retroorbital injection into a single Ai213 transgenic mouse results in labeling of three different neuronal classes/subclasses in the same brain tissue. This approach combines unprecedented flexibility with specificity for investigation of cell types in the mouse brain and beyond. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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