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Nephrolithiasis is a common urological trait disorder with acute pain. Although previous studies have identified various genetic variations associated with nephrolithiasis, the host genetic factors remain largely unidentified. To identify novel nephrolithiasis loci in the Japanese population, we performed large-scale GWAS (Genome wide association study) using 11,130 cases and 187,639 controls, followed by a replication analysis using 2,289 cases and 3,817 controls. The analysis identified 14 significant loci, including 9 novel loci on 2p23.2-3, 6p21.2, 6p12.3, 6q23.2, 16p12.3, 16q12.2, 17q23.2, 19p13.12, and 20q13.2. Interestingly, 10 of the 14 regions showed a significant association with any of 16 quantitative traits, including metabolic, kidney-related, and electrolyte traits, suggesting a common genetic background among nephrolithiasis patients and these quantitative traits. Four novel loci are related to the metabolic pathway, while the remaining 10 loci are associated with the crystallization pathway. Our findings demonstrate the crucial roles of genetic variations in the development of nephrolithiasis.

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