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Contribution of pretomanid to novel regimens containing bedaquiline with either linezolid or moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide in murine models of tuberculosis

By Jian Xu, Si-Yang Li, Deepak V Almeida, Rokeya Tasneen, Kala Barnes-Boyle, Paul J Converse, Anna M Upton, Khisimuzi Mdluli, Nader Fotouhi, Eric Nuermberger

Posted 08 Jan 2019
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/514661 (published DOI: 10.1128/aac.00021-19)

Novel regimens combining bedaquiline and pretomanid with either linezolid (BPaL regimen) or moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide (BPaMZ regimen) shorten the treatment duration needed to cure TB in BALB/c mice compared to the first-line regimen and have yielded promising results in initial clinical trials. However, the independent contribution of the investigational new drug pretomanid to the efficacy of BPaMZ has not been examined and its contribution to BPaL has been examined only over the first 2 months of treatment. In the present study, the addition of pretomanid to BL increased bactericidal activity, prevented emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and shortened the duration needed to prevent relapse with drug-susceptible isolates by at least 2 months in BALB/c mice. Addition of pretomanid to BMZ resulted in a 1 log10 greater CFU reduction after 1 month of treatment and/or reduced the number of mice relapsing in each of 2 experiments in BALB/c mice and in immunocompromised nude mice. Bedaquiline-resistant isolates were found at relapse in only one BMZ-treated nude mouse. Treatment of infection with a pyrazinamide-resistant mutant in BALB/c mice with BPaMZ prevented selection of bedaquiline-resistant mutants and reduced the proportion of mice relapsing compared to BMZ alone. Among severely ill C3HeB/FeJ mice with caseous pneumonia and cavitation, BPaMZ increased median survival (≥60 vs. 21 days) and reduced median lung CFU by 2.4 log10 at 1 month compared to BMZ. In conclusion, in 3 different mouse models, pretomanid contributed significantly to the efficacy of the BPaMZ and BPaL regimens, including restricting the selection of bedaquiline-resistant mutants.

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