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Human brain transcriptomes can highlight biological pathways associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, challenges remain to link expression changes with causal triggers. We have examined 30 AD-associated, gene coexpression modules from human brains for overlap with 251 differentially-expressed gene sets from mouse brain RNA-sequencing experiments, including from models of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Human-mouse overlaps highlight responses to amyloid versus neurofibrillary tangle pathology and further reveal age- and sex-dependent expression signatures for AD progression. Human coexpression modules enriched for neuronal and/or microglial genes overlap broadly with signatures from mouse models of AD, Huntington′s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and also aging. Several human AD coexpression modules, including those implicated in the unfolded protein response and oxidative phosphorylation, were not activated in AD models, but instead were detected following other, unexpected mouse genetic manipulations. Our results comprise a powerful, cross-species resource and pinpoint experimental models for diverse features of AD pathophysiology from human brain transcriptomes.

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