Glendonite occurrences in the Tremadocian of Baltica: first Early Palaeozoic evidence of massive ikaite precipitation at temperate latitude
Leonid E Popov,
J. Javier Álvaro,
Lars E. Holmer,
Mansoureh Ghobadi Pour,
Andrei V Dronov,
Posted 04 Dec 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/486779 (published DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-43707-4)
Posted 04 Dec 2018
The Tremadocian (Early Ordovician) is currently considered a time span of greenhouse conditions with tropical water surface temperature estimates, interpolated from oxygen isotopes, approaching 40°C. In the high-latitude Baltoscandian Basin, these data are in contrast with the discovery of glendonite, a pseudomorph of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) and valuable indicator of near-freezing bottom-water conditions. The massive precipitation of this climatically sensitive mineral is associated with transgressive conditions and high organic productivity. Surprisingly, the precipitation of glendonite is contemporaneous with the record of conodonts displaying low δ values, which would suggest high temperatures (>40°C) in the water column. Therefore, the early Tremadocian sediments of Baltoscandia contain both 'greenhouse' pelagic signals and near-freezing substrate indicators. This apparent paradox suggests both the influence of isotopically depleted freshwater yielded by fluvial systems, and the onset of sharp thermal stratification patterns in a semi-closed basin, which should have played an important role in moderating subpolar climates and reducing latitudinal gradients.
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