Unlimited genetic switches for cell-type specific manipulation
Gaining independent genetic access to discrete cell types is critical to interrogate their biological functions, as well as to deliver precise gene therapy. Transcriptome analyses have allowed us to profile cell populations with extraordinary precision, revealing that cell types are typically defined by a unique combination of genetic markers. Given the lack of adequate tools to target cell types based on multiple markers, most cell types have remained inaccessible to genetic manipulation. Here, we present CaSSA, a platform to create unlimited genetic switches based on CRISPR/Cas9 (Ca) and the DNA repair mechanism known as single-strand annealing (SSA). CaSSA allows engineering of independent genetic switches that each respond to a specific gRNA. Expressing multiple gRNAs in specific patterns enables multiplex cell type-specific manipulations and combinatorial genetic targeting. CaSSA is thus a new genetic tool that conceptually works as an unlimited number of recombinases and will facilitate genetic access to cell types in diverse organisms.
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