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High throughput droplet single-cell Genotyping of Transcriptomes (GoT) reveals the cell identity dependency of the impact of somatic mutations

By Anna S. Nam, Kyu-Tae Kim, Ronan Chaligne, Franco Izzo, Chelston Ang, Ghaith Abu-Zeinah, Nathaniel D. Omans, Justin Taylor, Alessandro Pastore, Alicia Alonso, Marisa Mariani, Juan R. Cubillos-Ruiz, Wayne Tam, Ronald Hoffman, Joseph M. Scandura, Raul Rabadan, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Peter Smibert, Dan A. Landau

Posted 16 Oct 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/444687

Defining the transcriptomic identity of clonally related malignant cells is challenging in the absence of cell surface markers that distinguish cancer clones from one another or from admixed non-neoplastic cells. While single-cell methods have been devised to capture both the transcriptome and genotype, these methods are not compatible with droplet-based single-cell transcriptomics, limiting their throughput. To overcome this limitation, we present single-cell Genotyping of Transcriptomes (GoT), which integrates cDNA genotyping with high-throughput droplet-based single-cell RNA-seq. We further demonstrate that multiplexed GoT can interrogate multiple genotypes for distinguishing subclonal transcriptomic identity. We apply GoT to 26,039 CD34+ cells across six patients with myeloid neoplasms, in which the complex process of hematopoiesis is corrupted by CALR-mutated stem and progenitor cells. We define high-resolution maps of malignant versus normal hematopoietic progenitors, and show that while mutant cells are comingled with wildtype cells throughout the hematopoietic progenitor landscape, their frequency increases with differentiation. We identify the unfolded protein response as a predominant outcome of CALR mutations, with significant cell identity dependency. Furthermore, we identify that CALR mutations lead to NF-KB pathway upregulation specifically in uncommitted early stem cells. Collectively, GoT provides high-throughput linkage of single-cell genotypes with transcriptomes and reveals that the transcriptional output of somatic mutations is heavily dependent on the native cell identity.

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