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The cellular processes underpinning life are orchestrated by proteins and their interactions. Structural and dynamic heterogeneity, despite being key to protein and drug function, continues to pose a fundamental challenge to existing analytical and structural methodologies used to study these associations. Here, we use interferometric scattering microscopy to mass-image single biomolecules in solution with <2% mass error, up to 19-kDa resolution and 1-kDa precision. Thereby, we resolve oligomeric distributions at high dynamic range, detect small-molecule binding, and mass-image biomolecules composed not only of amino acids, but also heterogeneous species, such as lipo- and glycoproteins. These capabilities enable us to characterize the molecular mechanisms of processes as diverse as oligomeric self-assembly, glycoprotein cross-linking, amyloidogenic protein aggregation, and actin polymerization. Interferometric scattering mass spectrometry (iSCAMS) provides spatially resolved access to the dynamics of biomolecular interactions ranging from those involving small molecules to mesoscopic assemblies, one molecule at a time.

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