Family-based haplotype estimation and allele dosage correction for polyploids using short sequence reads
DNA sequence reads contain information about the genomic variants located on a single chromosome. By extracting and extending this information (using the overlaps of the reads), the haplotypes of an individual can be obtained. Adding parent-offspring relationships to the read information in a population can considerably improve the quality of the haplotypes obtained from short reads, as pedigree information can compensate for spurious overlaps (due to sequencing errors) and insufficient overlaps (due to shallow coverage). This improvement is especially beneficial for polyploid organisms, which have more than two copies of each chromosome and are therefore more difficult to be haplotyped compared to diploids. We develop a novel method, PopPoly, to estimate polyploid haplotypes in an F1-population from short sequence data by considering the transmission of the haplotypes from the parents to the offspring. In addition, PopPoly employs this information to improve genotype dosage estimation and to call missing genotypes in the population. Through realistic simulations, we compare PopPoly to other haplotyping methods and show its better performance in terms of phasing accuracy and the accuracy of phased genotypes. We apply PopPoly to estimate the parental and offspring haplotypes for a tetraploid potato cross with 10 offspring, using Illumina HiSeq sequence data of 9 genomic regions involved in plant maturity and tuberisation.
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