Intermolecular Disulfide-Bond Formation In Human FICD Modulates The Activity Of The Hyperactive E234G Mutant
Minttu S Virolainen,
Celeste M Hackney,
Cecilie L. Søltoft,
Ana P Cordeiro,
Jan J. Enghild,
Adrienne W Paton,
Esben S. Sørensen,
Posted 11 Apr 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/126516
Posted 11 Apr 2017
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). This homeostatic response activates signaling pathways that seek to reinstate a proper ER protein folding balance or induce apoptosis if ER stress persists. Recently, we and others identified human FICD (Filamentation induced by cyclic AMP domain-containing protein), an enzyme with adenylyltransferase (aka AMPylation) activity, as a new UPR target. Here, we demonstrate that FICD is functionally linked to the UPR, as evidenced by the finding that the adenylyltransferase activity of the protein induces ER stress, while FICD silencing increases sensitivity to ER stress. We identify BiP, an abundant ER chaperone and key regulator of the UPR, as the main substrate of FICD AMPylation in ER-derived microsomes, further emphasizing close functional connection of FICD to the UPR and in line with recent reports that AMPylation inactivates BiP. Notably, BiP overexpression increased the levels of BiP AMPylation as well as FICD auto-AMPylation, suggesting a homeostatic response that balances the pool of active BiP to modulate its functions in protein folding as well as UPR signaling. Finally, we show that overexpressed FICD forms a disulfide-bonded homo-dimer through Cys51 and Cys75 and demonstrate that mutation of these two cysteines in the context of a hyperactive FICD mutant leads to increased BiP AMPylation. This latter finding opens up the possibility that FICD activity is redox regulated and closely connected with ER redox homeostasis.
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