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Zika Fetal Neuropathogenesis: Etiology of a Viral Syndrome

By Zachary A. Klase, Svetlana Khakhina, Adriano De Bernardi Schneider, Michael V Callahan, Jill Glasspool-Malone, Robert Malone

Posted 29 Apr 2016
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/050674 (published DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004877)

The ongoing Zika Virus epidemic in the Americas, and the observed association with both fetal abnormalities (primary microcephaly) and adult autoimmune pathology (Guillain-Barre syndrome) has brought attention to this neglected pathogen. While initial case studies generated significant interest in the Zika virus outbreak, larger prospective epidemiology and basic virology studies examining the mechanisms of Zika viral infection and associated pathophysiology are only now starting to be published. In this review, we analyze Zika fetal neuropathogenesis from a comparative pathology perspective, using the historic metaphor of TORCH viral pathogenesis to provide context. By drawing parallels to other viral infections of the fetus, we identify common themes and mechanisms that may illuminate the observed pathology. The existing data on the susceptibility of various cells to both Zika and other flavivirus infections are summarized. Finally, we highlight relevant aspects of the known molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication.

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