The hemibiotrophic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae produces invasive hyphae enclosed in a plant-derived interfacial membrane, known as the extra-invasive hyphal membrane (EIHM), in living rice cells. Little is known about when the EIHM is disrupted and how the disruption contributes to blast disease. Here we show that EIHM disruption correlates with the hyphal growth stage in first-invaded susceptible rice cells. Our approach utilized GFP secreted from invasive hyphae as an EIHM integrity reporter. Secreted-GFP accumulated in the EIHM compartment but appeared in the rice cytoplasm when the EIHM integrity was compromised. Live-cell imaging of secreted-GFP and various fluorescent reporters revealed that EIHM disruption led to rice vacuole rupture and cell death limited to the invaded cell with closed plasmodesmata. We report that EIHM disruption and host cell death are landmarks delineating three distinct infection phases (early biotrophic, late biotrophic, and transient necrotrophic phases) within the first-invaded cell before reestablishment of biotrophy in second-invaded cells. M. oryzae effectors exhibited phase-specific localizations, including entry of the apoplastic effector Bas4 into the rice cytoplasm during the late biotrophic phase. Understanding how the phase-specific dynamics are regulated and linked to host susceptibility will offer potential targets that can be exploited to control blast disease.
- Downloaded 659 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 33,503
- In cell biology: 1,340
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 48,140
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 46,874
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!