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Haplotype-resolved assemblies and variant benchmark of a Chinese Quartet

By Peng Jia, Lianhua Dong, Xiaofei Yang, Bo Wang, Tingjie Wang, Jiadong Lin, Songbo Wang, Xixi Zhao, Tun Xu, Yizhuo Che, Ningxin Dang, Luyao Ren, Yujing Zhang, Xia Wang, Fan Liang, Yang Wang, Jue Ruan, The Quartet Project Team, Yuanting Zheng, Leming Shi, Jing Wang, Kai Ye

Posted 12 Sep 2022
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2022.09.08.504083

As the state-of-the-art sequencing technologies and computational methods enable investigation of challenging regions in the human genome, an update variant benchmark is demanded. Herein, we sequenced a Chinese Quartet, consisting of two monozygotic twin daughters and their biological parents, with multiple advanced sequencing platforms, including Illumina, BGI, PacBio, and Oxford Nanopore Technology. We phased the long reads of the monozygotic twin daughters into paternal and maternal haplotypes using the parent-child genetic map. For each haplotype, we utilized advanced long reads to generate haplotype-resolved assemblies (HRAs) with high accuracy, completeness, and continuity. Based on the ingenious quartet samples, novel computational methods, high-quality sequencing reads, and HRAs, we established a comprehensive variant benchmark, including 3,883,283 SNVs, 859,256 Indels, 9,678 large deletions, 15,324 large insertions, 40 inversions, and 31 complex structural variants shared between the monozygotic twin daughters. In particular, the preciously excluded regions, such as repeat regions and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, were systematically examined. Finally, we illustrated how the sequencing depth correlated with the de novo assembly and variant detection, from which we learned that 30 X HiFi is a balance between performance and cost. In summary, this study provides high-quality haplotype-resolved assemblies and a variant benchmark for two Chinese monozygotic twin samples. The benchmark expanded the regions of the previous report and adapted to the evolving sequencing technologies and computational methods.

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