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Spatially-enhanced clusterwise inference for testing and localizing intermodal correspondence

By Sarah M. Weinstein, Simon N Vandekar, Erica B Baller, Danni Tu, Azeez Adebimpe, Tinashe Tapera, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E. Gur, John A Detre, Armin Raznahan, Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Russell Shinohara, Jun Young Park

Posted 26 Apr 2022
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2022.04.25.489462

With the increasing availability of neuroimaging data from multiple modalities-each providing a different lens through which to study brain structure or function-new techniques for comparing, integrating, and interpreting information within and across modalities have emerged. Recent developments include hypothesis tests of associations between neuroimaging modalities, which can be used to determine the statistical significance of intermodal associations either throughout the entire brain or within anatomical subregions or functional networks. While these methods provide a crucial foundation for inference on intermodal relationships, they cannot be used to answer questions about where in the brain these associations are most pronounced. In this paper, we introduce a new method, called CLEAN-R, that can be used both to test intermodal correspondence throughout the brain and also to localize this correspondence. Our method involves first adjusting for the underlying spatial autocorrelation structure within each modality before aggregating information within small clusters to construct a map of spatially enhanced test statistics. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a subsample of children and adolescents from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we conduct simulations and data analyses where we illustrate the high statistical power and nominal type I error levels of our method. By constructing an interpretable map of group-level correspondence using spatially-enhanced test statistics, our method offers insights beyond those provided by earlier methods.

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