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Global profile of gene expression at single-cell resolution remains to be determined for primates. Using a recently developed technology ("Stereo-seq"), we have obtained a comprehensive single-cell spatial transcriptome map at the whole-brain level for cynomolgus monkeys, with ~600 genes per cell for 10 m-thick coronal sections (up to 15 cm2 in size). Large-scale single-nucleus RNA-seq analysis for ~1 million cells helped to identify cell types corresponding to Stereo-seq gene expression profiles, providing a 3-D cell type atlas of the monkey brain. Quantitative analysis of Stereo-seq data revealed molecular fingerprints that mark distinct neocortical layers and subregions, as well as domains within subcortical structures including hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, cerebellum, hypothalamus and claustrum. Striking whole-brain topography and coordinated patterns were found in the expression of genes encoding receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. These results pave the way for cellular and molecular understanding of organizing principles of the primate brain.

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