Diffusion weighted imaging has further pushed the boundaries of neuroscience by allowing us to peer farther into the white matter microstructure of the living human brain. By doing so, it has provided answers to fundamental neuroscientific questions, launching a new field of research that had been largely inaccessible. We will briefly summarise key questions, that have historically been raised in neuroscience, concerning the brain's white matter. We will then expand on the benefits of diffusion weighted imaging and its contribution to the fields of brain anatomy, functional models and plasticity. In doing so, this review will highlight the invaluable contribution of diffusion weighted imaging in neuroscience, present its limitations and put forth new challenges for the future generations who may wish to exploit this powerful technology to gain novel insights.
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