To explore theories of predictive coding, we presented mice with repeated sequences of images with novel im- ages sparsely substituted. Under these conditions, mice could be rapidly trained to lick in response to a novel image, demonstrating a high level of performance on the first day of testing. Using 2-photon calcium imaging to record from layer 2/3 neurons in the primary visual cor- tex, we found that novel images evoked excess activity in the majority of neurons. When a new stimulus se- quence was repeatedly presented, a majority of neurons had similarly elevated activity for the first few presenta- tions, which then decayed to almost zero activity. The decay time of these transient responses was not fixed, but instead scaled with the length of the stimulus sequence. However, at the same time, we also found a small fraction of the neurons within the population (~2%) that contin- ued to respond strongly and periodically to the repeated stimulus. Decoding analysis demonstrated that both the transient and sustained responses encoded information about stimulus identity. We conclude that the layer 2/3 population uses a two-channel predictive code: a dense transient code for novel stimuli and a sparse sustained code for familiar stimuli. These results extend and unify existing theories about the nature of predictive neural codes.
- Downloaded 4,256 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 1,058 out of 92,759
- In neuroscience: 111 out of 16,513
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 10,525 out of 92,759
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 32,313 out of 92,759
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!