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Microbial Engraftment and Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium difficile Patients With and Without IBD

By Robert P Hirten, Ari Grinspan, Shih-Chen Fu, Yuying Luo, Mayte Suarez-Farinas, John Rowland, Eduardo J. Contijoch, Ilaria Mogno, Nancy Yang, Tramy Luong, Philippe R Labrias, Inga Peter, Judy H Cho, Bruce Sands, Jean Frederic Colombel, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C. Clemente

Posted 18 Feb 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/267492

Background & Aims: Recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are effectively treated with fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). Uncertainty exists regarding the effectiveness of FMT for CDI with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its effects on disease activity and its effectiveness transferring the donor microbiome to patients with and without IBD. This study aims to determine FMTs effectiveness in subjects with and without IBD, its impact on IBD activity, the level of microbiome engraftment, and predictors of CDI recurrence. Methods: Subjects with and without IBD who underwent FMT for recurrent or refractory CDI between 2013 and 2016 at The Mount Sinai Hospital were followed for up to 6 months. The primary outcome was CDI recurrence 6 months after FMT. Secondary outcomes were (1) CDI recurrence 2 months after FMT; (2) Frequency of IBD flare after FMT; (3) Microbiome engraftment after FMT; (4) Predictors of CDI recurrence. Results: Overall, 134 patients, 46 with IBD, were treated with FMT. There was no difference in recurrence in patients with and without IBD at 2 months (22.5% vs 17.9%; p=0.63) and 6 months (38.7% vs 36.5%; p>0.99). Proton pump inhibitor use, severe CDI, and comorbid conditions were predictors of recurrence. The pre-FMT microbiome was not predictive of CDI recurrence. Subjects with active disease requiring medication escalation had reduced engraftment. There was no difference in engraftment based on IBD endoscopic severity at FMT. Conclusions: IBD did not affect CDI recurrence rates 6 months after FMT. Pre-FMT microbiome was not predictive of recurrence, and microbial engraftment was dependent on IBD treatment escalation but not on underlying disease severity.

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