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The striatum is interconnected with the cerebral cortex via multiple recurrent loops that play a major role in many neuropsychiatric conditions. Primate cortico-striatal connections can be precisely mapped using invasive tract-tracing. However, noninvasive human research has not mapped these connections with anatomical precision, limited by the practice of averaging neuroimaging data across individuals. Here we utilized highly-sampled resting-state functional connectivity MRI for individually-specific precision functional mapping of cortico-striatal connections. We identified ten discrete, individual-specific subnetworks linking cortex-predominately frontal cortex-to striatum. These subnetworks included previously unknown striatal connections to the human language network. The discrete subnetworks formed a stepped rostral-caudal gradient progressing from nucleus accumbens to posterior putamen; this organization was strongest for projections from medial frontal cortex. The stepped gradient organization fit patterns of fronto striatal connections better than a smooth, continuous gradient. Thus, precision subnetworks identify detailed, individual-specific stepped gradients of cortico-striatal connectivity that include human specific language networks.

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