Transdiagnostic multimodal neuroimaging in psychosis: structural, resting-state, and task MRI correlates of cognitive control
Background: Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with impairments in regulation of goal-directed behavior, termed cognitive control. Cognitive control related neural alterations have been studied in psychosis. However, studies are typically unimodal and relationships across modalities of brain function and structure remain unclear. Thus, we performed transdiagnostic multimodal analyses to examine cognitive control related neural variation in psychosis. Methods: Structural, resting, and working memory task imaging and behavioral data for 31 controls, 27 bipolar, and 23 schizophrenia patients were collected and processed identically to the Human Connectome Project (HCP), enabling identification of relationships with prior multimodal work. Two cognitive control related independent components (ICs) derived from the HCP using multiset canonical correlation analysis + joint independent component analysis (mCCA+jICA) were used to predict performance in psychosis. de novo mCCA+jICA was performed, and resultant IC weights were correlated with cognitive control. Results: A priori ICs significantly predicted cognitive control in psychosis (3/5 modalities significant). De novo mCCA+jICA identified an IC correlated with cognitive control that also discriminated groups. Structural contributions included insular, somatomotor, cingulate, and visual regions; task contributions included precentral, posterior parietal, cingulate, and visual regions; and resting-state contributions highlighted canonical network organization. Follow-up analyses suggested de novo correlations with cognitive control were primarily influenced by schizophrenia patients. Conclusions: A priori components partially predicted performance in transdiagnostic psychosis and de novo analyses identified novel contributions in somatomotor and visual regions in schizophrenia. Together, results suggest joint contributions across modalities related to cognitive control across the healthy-to-psychosis spectrum.
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