EEG microstate analysis offers a sparse characterisation of the spatio-temporal features of large-scale brain network activity. However, despite the concept of microstates is straight-forward and offers various quantifications of the EEG signal with a relatively clear neurophysiological interpretation, a few important aspects about the currently applied methods are not readily comprehensible. Here we aim to increase the transparency about the methods to facilitate widespread application and reproducibility of EEG microstate analysis by introducing a new EEGlab toolbox for Matlab. EEGlab and the Microstate toolbox are open source, allowing the user to keep track of all details in every analysis step. The toolbox is specifically designed to facilitate the development of new methods. While the toolbox can be controlled with a graphical user interface (GUI), making it easier for newcomers to take their first steps in exploring the possibilities of microstate analysis, the Matlab framework allows advanced users to create scripts to automatise analysis for multiple subjects to avoid tediously repeating steps for every subject. This manuscript provides an overview of the most commonly applied microstate methods as well as a tutorial consisting of a comprehensive walk-through of the analysis of a small, publicly available dataset.
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